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Education: Citations

Tips, techniques & links to help you find answers for your research papers & projects

Kinds of Citing

How something is cited will depend on whether it is in your bibliography, a list of references at the end of the paper, or within the paper itself.  Also citing differs depending on what format you are using,  print or electronic.

Citing Sources for a Bibliography
Example (MLA style): 
Fleisher, L. “Obesity and Sleep Apnea.” Anesthesiology Clinics of North America 23.3 (2005): xi-xii.

Citing Sources Within Your Paper
Example (MLA style):
(Fleischer xii)

Citing Online/Electronic Sources
Example (MLA style):
Fleisher, L. “Obesity and Sleep Apnea.” Anesthesiology Clinics of North America 23.3 (2005): xi-xii. Web. 

Create a Citation...

Create citations in MLA, APA, Chicago, CBE/CSE formats for books, journal articles, book chapters, etc.

Popular Citation Manuals

Your instructor may indicate which style manual they prefer you to use, or you may be given a choice. But the following is a list of the most popular style guides. There are also many Citation Guides by Discipline.

All books may be found on the shelves in the Information Commons behind the Reference Desk on the 1st floor of Ellis Library.

Use the books and/or these online examples of MLA, APA, Turabian and Chicago styles.

Citation Tools

Citation management tools like Zotero enable you to capture citation information about each book and article you are citing in order to help you create bibliographies, add footnotes, endnotes, etc. They even work in concert with word processing software to allow you to create the bibliography, add footnotes or endnotes while you are writing your paper!

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Video: Zotero Quick Intro

More about Zotero


EndNote, another citation management tool