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Journalism - Historical Research : Home

Primary Resources

Primary sources are documents or physical objects written or created at the time historical events occurred or well after the events in the form of memoirs or oral histories.  The author or creator was present at the time of the event and offers a first-hand account. Primary sources may include:

Original Documents (Diaries, letters, speeches, notes, meeting minutes, interviews, news audio or video footage, autobiographies, official records (birth/death/marriage certificates), new research findings reported in scholarly journal articles, newspaper articles, government documents (laws, reports, statistics, data). 
Creative Works (music, photography, film, poetry, drama, novels, works of art, architecture)
Relics/Artifacts (jewelery, pottery, tools, weapons, clothing, buildings - created and used during the period of study)

Primary sources serve as raw material to interpret the past, and when used along with previous interpretations by historians, may provide resources necessary for historical research.

Find primary source material by searching:

Library Catalogs (monographs and serials containing autobiographies, memoirs, letters, speeches, interviews, etc.; government documents, newspaper and periodical microforms, maps, etc.)

Archives/Special Collections


Secondary Sources

Secondary Sources analyze, interpret, or comment on primary resources.  They may include books (handbooks, encyclopedias, biographies), articles, reviews, scientific studies, editorials, etc.

  • Conduct a literature review using secondary sources
  • Search the online catalog for books and serials
  • Search (print & digital) subject bibliographies and databases for scholarly articles: 
    • Norton, Mary Beth, editor; Pamela Gerardi, associate editor.  The American Historical Association's guide to historical literature.  New York : Oxford University Press, 1995.  3rd edition. Ellis Library Reference - D20 .A54 1995 (vol. 1-2
  • Mine article bibliographies

Top MU database choices for historical research:

Other Guides/Resources

Online Resources