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Veterinary Pathobiology 5579: Veterinary Genomics

Before You Start...


Save yourself time & aggravation by answering the following questions & following the tips & techniques on this page

1.  What's my topic?
Ex.  Sugared drinks are a main cause of the obesity epidemic

2.  What are my main concepts? 
Ex.  1.  Sugared drinks;  2.  Obesity

3.  What are other terms or synonyms for my topics? 
Ex.  Sugared drinks - soft drinks, soda, cola, juice, sport drinks;  Obesity -  obese, overweight, fat

4.  What types of sources or materials can I use? 
Ex.  journal articles, books, evidence-based guidelines

Demo: Boolean Operators

Boolean or Combined Searching

Your searches will work best in most databases if you break your topic apart and then combine the concepts with AND/OR.  This is called Boolean logic and is named after a mathematician

AND  - narrows your searches
   Ex.  Obesity AND Sugared drinks


OR - broadens your searches
    Ex. sugared drinks OR sweetened beverages OR soft drink*

 Most databases will have pull down boxes where you can select AND or OR.

You can also use these together by using parenthesis.
     (obesity OR overweight) AND (sugared drinks OR sweetened beverage* OR soft drink* OR juice OR sports drinks)

The above in pictures 
   OR - gets all the info from both circles


AND - gets only the info where the circles overlap

General Tips

Truncation  - find all words starting with the letters you have typed.   CAUTION: use truncation carefully in PubMed. Truncation turns off the automatic term mapping feature -- try your search without truncation first. Most common truncation symbol is the asterisk * Note: think before you truncate (or, why cat* is a bad idea...)
Ex, obes* = obese, obesity
      child* = child, childhood, childlike, children

Wildcard - used to substitute letters inside a word
Ex. wom*n = woman OR women
      colo*r = color OR colour

Exact Phrase - use quotation marks around your term to get that exact phrase
Ex. "high fructose corn syrup"

Field Searching - you can search specifically in the title, the abstract (summary), or by author.   
Most databases have pull down menus that let you select which field you want to search.

Subject Searching - many databases "tag" or add terms to the articles. The agree-upon, controlled terms used are often called subject heading or descriptors. In PubMed, the terms are called MeSH (Medical Subject Headings). Subject searching allows you to bring similar articles together even if the keywords used are different.

Species Names - when searching the veterinary literature, think about different terminology used for your species
Ex. horse, equine, equus