Finding fictional treatments of medical topics in the MERLIN catalog is relatively easy. Do a subject search on "fiction" to browse a list of fictional books by topic. Or make your search more specific: fiction influenza; fiction physicians; fiction medicine.
To find short stories, do a keyword search on "stories" with other words, such as disease, medicine, or more specific terms. Or you might check the Short Story Index (Reference Z5917.S5 C62), a printed guide to short-stories by topic.
To find memoirs, diaries, etc. do a keyword search on "personal narratives" (with the quotation marks) with other words to designate your topic.
The Literature, Arts, and Medicine Database of NYU School of Medicine lists many examples from literature, art, film, and theater, with brief summaries and commentaries.
The Literature Online Text collection contains the full text of the most-studied English language literary texts, published until about 1923 in the case of prose and drama, but continuing into recent times in the case of poetry. To search this sub-category of Literature Online, click on "Texts" in the sidebar. You can search for more recent literary examples published within journals by searching in the Criticism sub-category and ticking the box for "literary works".
Library catalogs, such as MERLIN, use a "controlled vocabulary" of standard subject headings. These may guide you to some helpful books:
Diseases in literature
Epidemics in literature
Literature and medicine
Medicine in art
Medicine in literature
Medicine in motion pictures
Physicians in literature
[topic] in literature
[topic] religious aspects
[topic] social aspects
[topic] [place] history xth century (e.g. smallpox united states history 18th century)
Medical libraries use their own system of medical subject headings: MESH.
Medical history taking
Journals & Literary Reviews
Connective Tissue (UT Center for Medical Humanities & Ethics)
Yale Journal for Humanities in Medicine
JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
"The Cover" essays on cover art and "Poetry and Medicine" section.
Annals of Internal Medicine
Centers & Websites